od: Write files in octal or other formats
od writes an unambiguous representation of each file
(`-' means standard input), or standard input if none are given.
od [option]... [file]... od -C [file] [[+]offset [[+]label]]
Each line of output consists of the offset in the input, followed by
groups of data from the file. By default,
od prints the offset in
octal, and each group of file data is two bytes of input printed as a
single octal number.
The program accepts the following options. Also see section Common options.
bytesare interpreted as for the `-j' option.
odwrites one copy of each output line using each of the data types that you specified, in the order that you specified.
aoutputs things like `sp' for space, `nl' for newline, and `nul' for a null (zero) byte. Type
coutputs ` ', `\n', and
\0, respectively. Except for types `a' and `c', you can specify the number of bytes to use in interpreting each number in the given data type by following the type indicator character with a decimal integer. Alternately, you can specify the size of one of the C compiler's built-in data types by following the type indicator character with one of the following characters. For integers (`d', `o', `u', `x'):
odoutputs only the first line, and puts just an asterisk on the following line to indicate the elision.
ninput bytes per output line. This must be a multiple of the least common multiple of the sizes associated with the specified output types. If n is omitted, the default is 32. If this option is not given at all, the default is 16.
The next several options map the old, pre-POSIX format specification
options to the corresponding POSIX format specs. GNU
any combination of old- and new-style options. Format specification
odaccepted. The following syntax:
od --traditional [file] [[+]offset[.][b] [[+]label[.][b]]]can be used to specify at most one file and optional arguments specifying an offset and a pseudo-start address, label. By default, offset is interpreted as an octal number specifying how many input bytes to skip before formatting and writing. The optional trailing decimal point forces the interpretation of offset as a decimal number. If no decimal is specified and the offset begins with `0x' or `0X' it is interpreted as a hexadecimal number. If there is a trailing `b', the number of bytes skipped will be offset multiplied by 512. The label argument is interpreted just like offset, but it specifies an initial pseudo-address. The pseudo-addresses are displayed in parentheses following any normal address.
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