Any text editor may be used to prepare an Ada program. (If Emacs is used, the optional Ada mode may be helpful in laying out the program.) The program text is a normal text file. We will assume in our initial example that you have used your editor to prepare the following standard format text file:
with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO; procedure Hello is begin Put_Line ("Hello WORLD!"); end Hello;
This file should be named
With the normal default file naming conventions, GNAT requires
that each file
contain a single compilation unit whose file name is the
with periods replaced by hyphens; the
ads for a
adb for a body.
You can override this default file naming convention by use of the
special pragma Source_File_Name (for further information please
see Using Other File Names).
Alternatively, if you want to rename your files according to this default
convention, which is probably more convenient if you will be using GNAT
for all your compilations, then the gnatchop utility
can be used to generate correctly-named source files
(see Renaming Files with gnatchop).
You can compile the program using the following command ($ is used as the command prompt in the examples in this document):
$ gcc -c hello.adb
`gcc' is the command used to run the compiler. This compiler is
capable of compiling programs in several languages, including Ada and
C. It assumes that you have given it an Ada program if the file extension is
.adb, and it will then call
the GNAT compiler to compile the specified file.
-c switch is required. It tells `gcc' to only do a
compilation. (For C programs, `gcc' can also do linking, but this
capability is not used directly for Ada programs, so the
switch must always be present.)
This compile command generates a file
hello.o, which is the object
file corresponding to your Ada program. It also generates
an ’Ada Library Information’ file
which contains additional information used to check
that an Ada program is consistent.
To build an executable file,
use gnatbind to bind the program
and `gnatlink' to link it. The
argument to both gnatbind and `gnatlink' is the name of the
ALI file, but the default extension of
be omitted. This means that in the most common case, the argument
is simply the name of the main program:
$ gnatbind hello $ gnatlink hello
A simpler method of carrying out these steps is to use `gnatmake', a master program that invokes all the required compilation, binding and linking tools in the correct order. In particular, `gnatmake' automatically recompiles any sources that have been modified since they were last compiled, or sources that depend on such modified sources, so that ’version skew’ is avoided.
$ gnatmake hello.adb
The result is an executable program called
hello, which can be
run by entering:
assuming that the current directory is on the search path for executable programs.
and, if all has gone well, you will see:
appear in response to this command.